The Gülen Movement was born at a time when a rapid social change was taking place in Turkey. However, at the same time a parallel movement was taking place in the world: emergence of political Islam or politization of Islam, in response of globalization. What was transpiring in Turkey at the time? As rapid urbanization, class differentiation, and cultural shifts from village and small towns were flocking to the cities, alternative frames of reference were needed. A balance had to be struck between the traditional values that people were socialized in and modern values; these new behavioral patterns would help them to navigate through the challenges of modern city life.