Generating an Understanding of Financial Resources in the Gülen Movement: Kimse Yok mu Foundation

In 2008, several European and American newspapers and magazines published articles related to the Gülen Movement (GM). At the beginning of the year, the French newspaper, Le Monde, analyzed the GM oriented schools in Germany and suggested these schools could serve as examples to the French immigrant population (Borne, 2008). Later, the New York Times ran a cover page story of GM schools in Pakistan, this time pointing to these schools as a remedy to radical Islam (Tavernise, 2008). Several other local newspapers also ran the same story in the United States.

The Gülen Movement also has attracted scholarly research the results of which were reflected in several conferences organized to analyze the movement and its activities, and several masters and PhD theses have been written on topics related to the movement. In all these studies, there is very little information on the financial resources of the movement. Due to the fact that Gülen-inspired projects are always locally based and embedded in local circles of supporters (Ebaugh & Koc, 2007), a study of the financial resources of the Gülen Movement as a whole requires traveling all over the world and studying a number of GM oriented projects. On the other hand, one can easily analyze individual projects or foundations and can generate an understanding of the general resources and methods of financial sponsorships within the Gülen Movement.

It is the goal of this paper to look at a social movement organization1 (SMO) within the Gülen Movement, and to analyze its revenues and methods of gathering financial resources in[1] order to generate an understanding of financial resources of the Gülen Movement in general. For this purpose, 'Kimse Yok Mu' Solidarity and Aid Association ( referred to as Kimse Yok Mu) offers an ideal case for several reasons: (1) Most of the GM SMOs are locally organized and embedded in local circles of supporters. However, Kimse Yok Mu is organized nationwide (within Turkey). (2) It offers rich data related to financial resources. (3) Compared to other GM SMOs, Kimse Yok Mu collects a large amount of money and goods.

In order to analyze the financial resources of the association, interviews were conducted with several officers of the association, but mainly accounts of the association were analyzed. Lofland's (1996) study of SMOs, especially, financial resources of SMOs is used as a benchmark. In his study, Lofland (1996) looks at the finances of the SMO and the various kinds of financial support to the SMO. According to Lofland, the first kind of financial support is the in‐kind donation which comes from members and supporters in four different ways: participation; work; lifestyle; and goods and services. The second kind of financial support comes as money in thirteen different ways: grants come from project funding organizations; persons of wealth who provide large amounts of money to make projects or organizations possible; dues, from the members; direct mail; phone banks or telemarketing; fundraising events; sales revenue, the production of goods in order to make profits; public place solicitation and selling; canvassing; gambling; hat passing; expropriation; and government aid.

'Kimse Yok Mu' Solidarity and Aid Association: A Short History

'Kimse Yok Mu' Solidarity and Aid Association takes its name from the call ('Kimse Yok Mu' means "Is There Anybody?" in Turkish) of earthquake victims and rescue workers in 1999[2]. The association started as a TV program named "Kimse Yok Mu" on Samanyolu TV to help those who suffered from the earthquake as well as others who are in desperate need of financial and social support (Özkara, 2008). In March 2004, it was reconstructed and became institutionalized as a nonprofit organization. The association started to be gradually organized throughout Turkey, and currently has 81 regional branches all over the country. It also operates in some European countries where there is a sizeable Turkish population, including Germany, the Netherlands, and France.

The association categorizes its aid activities in five categories: sister family projects, aids in kind (food, fuel, clothing, and health), educational aid, foreign aid, and other aid.

Sister Family Projects

In sister family projects, the association finds a middle class or a wealthy family and matches them with a poor family. These sister families help the poor families with their own means or they rely on help from other charitable people. In this ongoing relation, sister families help to solve the problems of poor families, support them in the education of their children and, more importantly, they try to make them reach the life standards of the majority of people in the society. Currently, the association has matched close to 1500 families all over Turkey. However, in five years, they aim to reach more than a hundred thousand families (Bolukbas, 2008).

Aid‐ in‐ Kind

Through its food bank, the association is able to collect food, clothes, hygiene materials and fuel from individuals, but more importantly from the producers and manufacturers of these products. In this system, Kimse Yok Mu serves as the mediator and sustains the tidy and healthy delivery of ‐‐ foods and other aid to the needy (Emecen, 2008). In 2007, Kimse Yok Mu's food distribution reached more than 2 million people in 11 different countries. In addition to these food distributions, the association also collects the meat of sacrificed animals during the Eid of Sacrifice[3] and distributes to needy people. During 2007 Sacrifice Eid, the association collected 12,500 sacrificial animals (mostly cattle and sheep) and distributed them to 45,000 people in 35 countries and 30,000 people in Turkey (Sakin & Albayrak, 2007).

The association organizes free medical check‐ups and medicine to residents in rural areas. The Association finds volunteer medical personnel (doctors, nurses, pharmacists, etc.) and organizes free medical scanning campaigns several times each year. More than 50,000 people have benefited from these services, mostly in Turkey but also in some African countries, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (Emecen, 2008; Unal, 2008). In addition to aid‐ in‐ kind, Kimse Yok Mu also distributes clothing, stoves, and fuel, especially during the winter seasons (Bolukbas, 2008).

Educational Aid

Kimse Yok Mu distributes educational equipment (books, bags, etc.) to students and gives scholarships to needy students. The association established tutoring centers, especially in southeast Turkey, to provide free tutoring services to students from poor families. The association has provided tutoring to more than 20,000 students with the help of its volunteers (Bolukbas, 2008). Other than these educational aids, the association has built 11 schools in Pakistan, 4 in Indonesia, 1 in Bangladesh, and 1 in Turkey. The association handed over these schools to the local governments[4].

Foreign Aid

The association also organizes campaigns to help countries where disasters happen, such as earthquakes in Pakistan, Peru, China, Myanmar and the tsunami in Indonesia. The Association opens separate bank accounts for each aid campaign and collects money and goods for each disaster.

Other Aid

Other than the aforementioned forms of aid, the association advertises that it is open to any aid project proposals that might come from individuals or organizations. Kimse Yok Mu selects people to help through applications and references. People who are in need of anything apply to the foundation via letter, email, phone, or in person. Applications are evaluated by the social workers in the association.. Also, the association automatically starts aid campaigns for any disaster happening in any part of the world (Bolukbas, 2008).

Because of its activities Kimse Yok Mu has received several awards and recognitions including from the Parliament of the Turkish Republic, the Parliament of Peru[5], the President of Pakistan, and also from several civic organizations.

Financial Resources

Financial resources of SMOs come from two main categories (Lofland1996) : in‐kind donations and money. The in‐kind donations come from supporters in the form of participation, work, goods and services.

In‐kind Donations: Volunteers at Kimse Yok Mu

Kimse Yok Mu has many volunteers from different strata of society. The association finds volunteers via its website and regional offices. People, who want to volunteer for the association either fill out a form on the association's website or go to a regional office and apply. At the association, people volunteer in seven main categories: (1) Observations of the needy families; (2) Preparation of the aid equipment; (3) Distribution of aid equipment; (4) Active duty in time of a disaster; (5) Advertisement and Public Relations; (6) Working in the office; (7) Health care. There are other options to volunteer, as well. (Donmez, 2008).

Records of volunteers are kept monthly at the association's headquarter in Istanbul. Number of volunteers change according to the month. Especially in summer, there is a dramatic decline in the number of volunteers[6]. However, during other months, the association is able to find close to 7,000 volunteers each month in Turkey.

Table‐1: Number of Volunteers with their Educational Levels and Genders (in 2008)

 VolunteersHigh School or lowerHigh SchoolUniversityMaleFemale
January52458.46%33.33%58.21%57.77%42.23%
February55356.13%28.23%65.64%58.72%41.28%
March60469.49%32.54%57.97%39.95%60.05%
April653720.99%28.70%50.31%43.25%56.75%
May69478.74%36.54%54.72%51.02%48.98%
June28412.78%32.60%54.62%42.61%57.39%
July1736.17%25.31%68.52%41.62%58.38%

Kimse Yok Mu finds volunteers through its website and volunteer network. Many volunteers of the association bring their friends and family members. It promotes its activities on television channels[7] and newspapers (Bolukbas, 2008).

Donations: Money

Lofland (1996) specifies thirteen different ways in which an SMO may receive financial contributions: grants come from project funding organizations; wealthy individuals provide large monetary donations; dues are collected from the members; donations are accepted via direct mail; phone banks or telemarketing; fundraising events; sales revenue, the production of goods in order to make profits; public place solicitation and selling; canvassing; gambling; hat passing; expropriation; and government aid. Among these, Kimse Yok Mu utilizes six different methods: (1) in‐person donations to bank accounts, (2) online donations, (3) mobile phone text messages which result in a donation paid by a charge to the account holder, (4) in‐person donations to the association's regional offices, (5) kiosks in crowded streets, (6) donation boxes in small business stores.

Since the association starts aid campaigns for natural disasters happening in the world, the amount of money that the association collects changes according to whether a natural disaster happens or not. When the number of disasters increases in a year, the amount of monetary donations that is collected by the organization increases, as well.

Table‐2: Annual Collected Donations (money) from 2005 to First Half of 2008*

 In‐Person Donations to Bank AccountsOnline DonationsKiosks/BoxesIn‐Person to OfficesText MessageTotal
2005$13,176,666.11$0.00$54,276.67$1,881,491.23$0.00$15,112,434.00
2006$6,413,466.75$254,560.00$174,912.50$1,469,429.33$221,828.85$8,534,198.23
2007$6,661,123.88$588,219.07$474,561.67$4,645,570.83$970,864.56$13,340,317.50
2008$3,130,939.37$293, 381.49$165,557.50$0.00$480,135.04$3,776, 631.91**

*Money collected by the association was in Turkish Lira, however, in the table they were converted to US dollar (1 USD= 1.2 TL).

**Donations in the year of 2008 are only for the first half of the year. In every year, there is a big increase in donations during the month of Ramadan (fasting month). Traditionally, Turkish people tend to give more charity during the month of Ramadan. In 2008, month of Ramadan is September, which was not included in the first half of the year[8], therefore the amount is low.

The biggest monetary contribution comes to the association via in‐person donations to bank accounts. In this form of donation, the association opens bank accounts for each campaign and advertizes it through their web site and the media, and individuals go to banks and deposit money into these accounts. In 2005, almost 85% of the money was collected via this method; however, its share declined in the succeeding years.

In online donations, people go to the association's website and deposit money by using their credit or debit cards. In 2005, the association did not have an online donation form; therefore, it did not receive any donation via online. Later on, the amount increased every year, surpassing $588,000 in 2007. The amount of money via kiosks and boxes also increased every year. In this form of donation, volunteers of the association open donation desks on the main streets of the cities and collect monetary contributions from passersby. They also put donation boxes in small business stores where their customers can contribute change or small cash donations. After putting a box in a store, the volunteers go to the store every month to collect the money in the boxes. These boxes stay in the stores as long as the store owners permit.

The second biggest source of monetary contributions (after in‐person donations to bank accounts) is in‐person donations to the association's regional offices. Similar to in‐person donations to bank accounts, the association opens a campaign for a certain disaster or a targeted aid project, and advertises it via media, and individuals come to the association's regional offices and make in‐person donations. This form of donation is either in cash or checks. There is also an increase in this form of donation in the recent years.

The Last form of donation used by the Kimse Yok Mu is text messages. It is very common in Turkey to make donations via text messages. When the association starts a campaign, it advertises certain message codes for mobile phone owners. If a person wants to donate to the campaign, he or she sends a text message to the designated number, and the phone operator transfers a certain amount of money from the person's phone account to the campaign's account. In most cases, one text message costs 2 Turkish Lira (approximately 1.5 US dollars). In 2005, the association did not use this form of donation, therefore did not collect any money through text messages. However, in the subsequent years, when the association became more prominent in Turkish society, the amount of donations through this method increased steadily.

In addition to direct monetary contributions, the association collects sacrificial animals (close to 12,500 cattle or sheep every year) and donations as actual products (food, cloth, hygiene materials, and fuel), usually from producers. These kinds of donations are stored in the association's storage facilities, and then distributed to needy people, usually by the donors themselves. In this system, Kimse Yok Mu serves as the mediator between the donors and the needy people, and sustains the tidy and healthy delivery of the food to the needy (Emecen, 2008).

Number of Donors

Table‐3: Number of Donors for Each Year[9]

 In‐Person Donations to Bank AccountsOnline DonationsKiosks/Boxes*In‐Person to OfficesText MessageTotal
200542,20002503,200045,650
200618,5008504003,00013,86536,615
200718,2001,2001,1008,500606,790635,790
200811,9202,0613200214,117228,418

*Numbers are only for kiosks, data for the donation boxes is not attainable.

Due to changes in the forms of donation there is no direct correlation between the number of donors and the amount of donations. While the biggest amount of monetary contributions ($15,112,434.00, in 2005) was collected in the year 2005, there were only 45,650 individual donors. On the other hand, a smaller amount of money ($13,340,317.50, in 2007) was donated by 635790 people. This discrepancy is due to the number of people who donated via text messages. While the amount of money collected by text messages (1.5 dollar per text message) is less, the number of people who make the donations is very high.

After text messages, the second most common way of making donations is in‐person donations to a bank account, even if there is a decline each year. The third common way is in‐person donations to association's regional offices. There is also increase in the number of people who make donations via online, and kiosks. However, as mentioned in the above footnote, there is no way of knowing either the number of people who are putting money into the donation boxes or the change in this number.

Table‐4: Current Active Campaigns and Donations[10]

 Via Text MessagesVia Bank AccountVia OnlineTotal
Emrecan Kizilkaya (for child's medical treatment)$1,222.04$80.00$1,228.52$1,236.36
Feride (for child's medical treatment)$820.00$330.00$1,216.45$9,674.63
Mehmet Coskun (for child's dwelling)$1,900.00$100.00$7,269.82$9,170.82
Chad (for medical supplies to Chad)$38,712.00$6,827.00$2,433.44$47,972.44
Sacrifice$0.00$7,600.00$171,140.00$178,740.00
Peru$3,016.00$25.00$1,025.76$4,066.76
Hatice Şengül (for education of a handicapped child)$18,444.00$1,250.00$2,577.04$22,271.04
Seher Aktaş$696.00$4,901.00$10,819.85$16,416.85
Darfur (for a village in Darfur)$2,917.00$4,901.00$10,819.85$18,637.85
Three Brothers (for medical treatment)$320.00$101.00$1,885.35$2,306.35
Omer Dur (for medical treatment)$72.00$1.00$345.00$418.00
Philistine$176,380.00$206,104.00$19,758.22$402,242.22
Sinem Çakir (for medical treatment)$1,944.00$35,811.00$3,118.87$40,873.87
Semdinli (for a school in Semdinli)$3,128.00$270.00$8,102.30$11,500.30
Mehmet Saydam (for medical treatment)$428.00$85.00$1,731.31$2,244.31
Indonesia (for orphans in Indonesia)$86,688.00$4,185.00$9,614.95$100,487.95
Pakistan$212.00$500.00$1,351.84$2,063.84
Mardin Derik (for medical treatment)$1,592.00$2,100.00$590.97$4,282.97
Elif Cebel (for medical treatment)$876.00$3,687.00$6,307.81$10,870.81
Burma‐Myanmar$80,344.00$46,575.00$17,773.79$144,692.79
Cevahir Anne (for dwelling)$88.00$300.00$2,090.33$2,478.33
China$60,336.00$60,715.00$12,180.02$133,231.02
Total$480,135.04$386,448.00$293,381.49$1,165,879.51

Table‐5: 2008 Donation Summary[11]

 In‐Person Donations to Bank AccountsOnline DonationsText MessageTotal
# of Donors11,920214117214117228,098
Amount of Donations$3,130,939.37$293, 381.49$480,135.04$3,611,074.41
Mean$262.66$142.35$2.2$15.83
Mode$250$50$2$250
Maximum$25000$19000$6$25000
Minimum$50$1$2$1

As it can be seen from the above table average donation is $15.83 in the first half of 2008. Due to high number of people who made text message donations (214,117), the average donation went down from $262.66 (for in‐person donations to bank accounts), and $142.35 (for online donations) to $15.83 (for overall).

Table‐6: 2008 Donation Distribution Graphic

Table‐6 shows the distribution graphic of the donations made in 2008. Since many people made small amount text message donations, there is a high concentration of distribution just above 0 (which is 2). After excluding text message donations, most of the donations are concentrated below $5000. There are also a few outliners above $15,000.

In order to see a better graphic of donation frequency, only online donations are used in the below graphic.

Table‐7: 2008 Online Donation Frequency Graphic[12]

Table‐7 shows that most of the online donations are made in the range of $1‐$250. There are also a few out‐liners above $10,000.

Conclusion

In order to demonstrate a general understanding of financial resources of the Gülen Movement, this paper analyzes a social movement organization in the movement, Kimse Yok Mu Solidarity and Aid Association. While there are differences in the methods of how each Gülen Movement SMO finds its financial resources, there are similarities at the grass roots level. This study shows that as a Gülen Movement SMO, Kimse Yok Mu collects a large amount of money and goods from over 635,000 donors as of the end of 2007. Donations are not made as big amounts by a few but rather donations are made in small amounts by many people.

Due to the locality and the nature of the movement, each SMO demonstrates differences in their financial resource methods and mechanisms. In order to generate a better understanding of financial resources of the Gülen Movement, several different SMOs can be analyzed. For future research, a GM school or a dialog organization can be analyzed. A GM school may demonstrate a better understanding of financial resources of GM schools in general, while a dialog organization does so for similar dialog organizations.

Bibliography

Bolukbas, E. (2008, July 24). Coordinator of Information Processing, Kimse Yok Mu Solidarity and Aid Association. (D. Koc, Interviewer)

Borne, M. E. (2008, January 22). Ceux qui font ecole a part. Le Monde De L'Education .

Donmez, S. (2008, July 24). Coordinator of Financial and Administrative Affairs, Kimse Yok Mu Solidarity and Aid Foundation. (D. Koc, Interviewer)

Ebaugh, H. R., & Koc, D. (2007). FUNDING GULEN‐INSPIRED GOOD WORKS:DEMONSTRATING AND GENERATING COMMITMENT TO THE MOVEMENT. Muslim World In Transtition: The Impact of the Gülen Movement (pp. 539‐551). London: Leeds Metropolitan University Press.

Emecen, S. (2008, June 3). Coordinator of Branches and Social Research, Kimse Yok Mu Solidarity and Aid Association. (D. Koc, Interviewer)

Lofland, J. (1996). Social Movement Organizations: Guide to Research on Insurgent Realities (Social Problems and Social Issues). Rutgers: Aldine Transaction.

Marwell, G., & Oliver, P. (1984, 7). Collective Action Theory and Social Movements Research. Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change , pp. 1‐27.

Özkara, M. (2008). http://www.kimseyokmu.org.tr/en. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Kimse Yok Mu Solidarity and Aid Association: http://www.kimseyokmu.org.tr/en/Pages.aspx?pagesID=539

Sakin, M., & Albayrak, M. (2007, January 5). Afrika'da kurban dağitan Türkler 'Osmanli torunlari' diye karşilandi. Zaman News Paper , p. 5.

Tavernise, S. (2008, May 4). Turkish Schools Offer Pakistan a Gen$er Vision of Islam. The New York Times.

Unal, A. (2008, May 20). Kimse Yok mu, Bangladeş'te sağlik taramasi yapti. Zaman News Paper , p. 4.

Appendix

Frequency Table of Online Donations in 2008

Amount of DonationsFrequencyPercentCumulative
190.440.44
210.050.49
330.150.63
410.050.68
5763.694.37
640.194.56
720.14.66
840.194.85
101195.7710.63
1120.110.72
1240.1910.92
1310.0510.97
1410.0511.01
15281.3612.37
1910.0512.42
201406.7919.21
2310.0519.26
2480.3919.65
25612.9622.61
2620.122.71
2720.122.8
2910.0522.85
30643.1125.96
3420.126.06
3580.3926.44
3630.1526.59
3720.126.69
3820.126.78
40311.528.29
4520.128.38
4850.2428.63
5025512.3741
5110.0541.05
5210.0541.1
5310.0541.15
5410.0541.19
5520.141.29
5610.0541.34
5710.0541.39
5810.0541.44
6210.0543.18
6310.0543.23
6410.0543.28
65100.4943.77
6710.0543.81
70120.5844.4
7410.0544.44
75150.7345.17
8080.3945.56
8110.0545.61
8310.0545.66
8410.0545.71
8520.145.8
8710.0545.85
9050.2446.09
9310.0546.14
9410.0546.19
9520.146.29
9610.0546.34
9740.1946.53
1002039.8556.38
10520.156.48
10910.0556.53
11060.2956.82
11210.0556.87
11530.1557.01
11620.157.11
11840.1957.3
120130.6357.93
12110.0557.98
12210.0558.03
12320.158.13
12410.0558.18
12570.3458.52
13050.2458.76
13210.0558.81
13310.0558.85
13710.0559.1
13810.0559.15
150391.8962.2
15810.0562.25
16010.0562.3
16510.0562.35
17020.162.45
17110.0562.49
17320.162.59
175130.6363.22
17610.0563.27
17910.0563.32
1801336.4569.77
18210.0569.82
18510.0569.87
18710.0569.92
18920.170.01
19040.1970.21
19210.0570.26
195180.8771.13
200532.5773.7
20210.0573.75
20510.0573.8
21030.1573.94
21110.0573.99
22020.174.09
22510.0574.14
22910.0574.19
23110.0574.24
23520.174.33
23910.0574.38
24110.0574.43
24210.0574.48
25024812.0386.51
25310.0586.56
25530.1586.71
260432.0988.79
26510.0588.84
27010.0588.89
27510.0588.94
28030.1589.08
28210.0589.13
300200.9790.2
31010.0590.25
32010.0590.3
32530.1590.44
35070.3490.78
360180.8791.65
36210.0591.7
37010.0591.75
37710.0591.8
38410.0591.85
39040.1992.04
39810.0592.09
400110.5392.62
42530.1592.77
43050.2493.01
43510.0593.06
44030.1593.21
45030.1593.35
45510.0593.4
46010.0593.45
48010.0593.5
500532.5796.07
51020.196.17
51110.0596.22
51510.0596.26
52020.196.36
52510.0596.41
54050.2496.65
54910.0596.7
55010.0596.75
55510.0596.8
56810.0596.85
59010.0596.89
60020.196.99
60310.0597.04
61010.0597.09
62310.0597.14
62610.0597.19
64510.0597.28
65050.2497.53
68310.0597.57
69510.0597.62
69710.0597.67
70010.0597.72
71010.0597.77
71510.0597.82
72010.0597.87
74520.197.96
75040.1998.16
76010.0598.2
78010.0598.25
81810.0598.3
87510.0598.35
93010.0598.4
96010.0598.45
99910.0598.5
1000120.5899.08
108010.0599.13
111110.0599.18
117010.0599.22
120910.0599.27
123510.0599.32
125010.0599.37
140010.0599.42
150010.0599.47
151510.0599.51
200010.0599.56
234010.0599.61
250510.0599.66
300010.0599.71
376710.0599.76
381010.0599.81
510010.0599.85
1000010.0599.9
1172010.0599.95
1900010.05100
Total2,061100</td> 
Footnote[1] SMOs are the named associations which view themselves as part of a movement, and that are carrying on campaigns in the name of the movement (Marwell & Oliver, 1984).

[2] A devastating 7.4 earth quake happened in Marmara region of Turkey and killed more than 35 000 people in 17 August 1999.

[3] Sacrifice Eid is an Islamic holiday in which the able Muslims are required to sacrifice animals and distribute their meats to needy people.

[4] These schools are different than the Gülen‐schools operates in many countries. Gülen‐schools are private schools which are managed by the educators from the GM. However, schools that were built by the Kimse Yok Mu association were only built by the association and given to the local governments of the countries that they were built in.

[5] Kimse Yok Mu built 367 prefabricated houses and a police station in Peru after the 15 August 2007 earthquake in Peru. The Parliament of Peru presented an award to the association for its service to people of Peru and also for being the only international NGO who provided help after the earthquake.

[6] Most probably due to schools are closed during the summer.

[7] The association was started as a TV program at Samanyolu TV, and the program still continues. Because of the

activities, the foundation gets much coverage

[8] Data for this study were collected before the month of Ramadan (September in 2008).

[9] Due to the complexity of the data in the years of 2005, 2006, and 2007 numbers are approximate. However, because of the developments in data recording process at the association's head‐quarter; numbers are actual numbers for the year 2008.

[10] Data was collected in August 2008. Other than these campaigns, people make donations directly to the association's general account without specifying any campaign. These donations are directed to either the current campaigns or to new campaigns.

[11] Number of people who made donations via donation boxes in stores is not attainable; therefore the category of kiosks/boxes is not included in this summary table. If number of people is not known it is impossible to give the information about the mean, mode, etc.

[12] See appendix for detailed frequency of the online donations in 2008.

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