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The Prophet of Universal Mercy

by Fethullah Gülen on . Posted in Prophet Muhammad as Commander

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The beginning of existence was an act of mercy and compassion. Without mercy the universe would be in chaos. Everything has come into existence through compassion and by compassion it continues to exist in harmony.

God created the world as a theatre where His Names are manifested. He introduces Himself, first of all, as the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate. Muslims utter In the Name of God, the All-Merciful, All-Compassionate, before whatever good they do. The subsistence of the world is also through the Name, the All-Merciful. This Name manifests itself, first of all, as the All-Provider so as to secure the subsistence or survival of living creatures through food or nourishment. Besides, life is the foremost and most manifest blessing of God Almighty, and the true and everlasting life is the life of the Hereafter. Since man can deserve this life by acting in a way to please God, God sent Prophets and revealed Scriptures out of His mercy for mankind. For this reason, while mentioning His blessings upon mankind in the surah al-Rahman (the All-Merciful) in the Qur'an, He begins:

Al-Rahman (the All-Merciful). He taught the Qur'an. He created man. He taught him speech. (al-Rahman, 55.1-4)

All aspects of this life are a rehearsal for the afterlife and every creature is engaged in action to this end. In every effort order is evident and in every achievement compassion resides. Some 'natural' events or social convulsions in the human order which seem to man disagreeable at first sight should not be regarded as incompatible with compassion. They are like dark clouds or lightning and thunder, which, although frightening for man, bring us good tidings of rain. Thus, the whole universe, from minutest particles to gigantic galaxies, sings the praises of the All-Compassionate.

The universe is, in the language of Muslim sages, God's 'created book' issued from His Attribute of Will. To write a book which no one could understand would be an exertion in vain and God is absolutely beyond such futility. So, He created Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, one who would instruct people in the meaning of the universe. Second, He taught man His Commandments through Muhammad in the Qur'an. Only by acting in accordance with these Commandments can man gain an eternal life of happiness. The Qur'an is the ultimate and most comprehensive form of Divine Revelation, Islam is the last, perfected and universal form of Divine Religions, and the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is the embodiment of Divine Compassion, one whom God sent not save as a mercy for all the worlds.

The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is like a spring of pure water in the heart of a desert, or like a source of light in the darkness enveloping the universe. Whoever appeals to this spring can take as much water as to quench his thirst and is purified of all his dirt or pollution, spiritual or intellectual, and illumined with the light of belief.

Mercy was a like a magical key in the hands of the Prophet Muhammad, who is the last Messenger of God, upon him be peace and blessings. He opened with this key the doors of the hearts so hardened and rusty as one thought it was impossible to open them, and lighted a torch of belief in them.

God's Messenger preached Islam, the religion of universal mercy. Despite this, some so-called 'champions of humanism' accuse Islam of being 'a religion of the sword'. However, this is a sheer deception. They seem to wail over an animal killed in some part of the world or raise their voices whenever one from them is harmed, but they do not bat an eyelid when others are massacred. Their world is built on personal interest. It should be pointed out that the abuse of the feeling of compassion is as harmful and sometimes more harmful than being devoid of compassion altogether.

The amputation of a gangrenous limb is an act of compassion to the rest of the whole body. Likewise, oxygen and hydrogen, mixed in the proper ratios, form one of the most vital of substances. However, when this ratio changes, each element resumes its original combustible identity. It is likewise of great importance to apportion the amount of compassion and to identify who deserves it. 'Compassion for a wolf sharpens its appetite, and not being content with what it receives, it demands even more.' Compassion for a rebel makes him more aggressive, encouraging him to offend against others. Compassion rather requires that one should be prevented from doing wrong. God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, says: Help your brother whether he be just or unjust. The Companions asked: 'How shall we help our unjust brother?' He replied: You help him by preventing him from doing injustice. So, compassion also requires that those who take pleasure in poisoning like a snake should either be deprived of their poison or prevented from poisoning. Or else, the administration of the world will be left to 'cobras'.

The compassion of God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, encompasses every creature. Indeed, he was also an invincible commander and an able statesman. He knew that to leave the world to blood-stained, blood-thirsty people would be tyranny of the most terrible kind to all the oppressed and wronged people. His compassion therefore required that lambs should be able to live in the utmost security against the attacks of wolves. He desired, of course, the guidance of everyone. This was his greatest concern, as stated in the Qur'an:

Yet it may be, if they believe not in this Message, you will consume yourself, following after them, with grief. (al-Kahf, 18.6)

But what could he do for those who persisted in unbelief and actually waged war against him in order to destroy him and his Message? He had to fight against his enemies out of his universal compassion that encompasses every creature. It was because of this compassion that when he was severely wounded in the Battle of Uhud, he held his hands open towards God and prayed: O God, forgive my people, for they do not know. (1)

In Makka, his people inflicted on him every kind of suffering eventually forcing him to emigrate to Madina, and then fought against him for five years. However, when he conquered Makka without bloodshed in the twenty-first year of his Prophethood, he asked the Makkan unbelievers, awaiting his decision about them: How do you expect me to treat you? They responded unanimously: 'You are a noble one, the son of a noble one.' He announced to them his decision:

You may go away! No reproach this day shall be on you; may God forgive you. He is the Most Compassionate of the Compassionate. (2)

The same announcement was made by Mehmed, the Conqueror, the seventh Ottoman sultan, to the defeated Byzantines, when he conquered Istanbul, eight and a quarter centuries later. Such is the universal compassion of Islam.

The Messenger's compassion towards the believers was of the utmost degree. The Qur'an describes his compassion in the following verse:

There has come to you a Messenger from among yourselves; grievous to him is your suffering; anxious is he over you, full of concern for you, for the believers full of pity, compassionate. (al-Tawbah, 9.128

He lowered unto believers his wing of tenderness through mercy (al-Hijr, 15.88), and was the 'guardian' of believers and nearer to them than their selves (al-Ahzab, 33.6). When one of his Companions died, he asked those present at the funeral whether that Companion had left any unpaid debt. On learning that he had left a debt, he mentioned the above quoted verse and announced:

I am his guardian. Let the creditors appeal to me to collect their debt. (3)

The compassion of God's Messenger even encompassed hypocrites and unbelievers. Although he recognized the hypocrites of his time, he never disclosed them so that they could enjoy the rights of full citizenship to which their outward confession of faith and practice entitled them. Since they lived among Muslims, their unbelief in eternal life after death may have been reduced or changed to doubt, and therefore their fear of death and the pain caused by the assertion of eternal non-existence after death might have been diminished. As for unbelievers, God removed the collective destruction from them. He had eradicated many peoples before. God says:

But God would never chastise them while you were among them; God would never chastise them as they begged forgiveness. (al-Anfal, 8.33)

This verse refers not only to the unbelievers in the time of God's Messenger, but also to all those coming later. God will not destroy peoples altogether so long as people who follow the Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, continue to live in the world. Besides, He has left 'the door of repentance' open until the Last Day. Anyone can accept Islam or beg God's forgiveness, however sinful he is. For this reason, a Muslim's enmity towards unbelievers is, in fact, in the form of pitying them. When 'Umar, the second Caliph, saw a priest of eighty years, he sat down and sobbed. When asked why he was sobbing, he replied: 'God assigned him so long a life span, but he has not been able to find the true path.'

'Umar was the disciple of God's Messenger, who said:

I was not sent as one to call down curses on people, but I was sent as a mercy. (4)

He also said:

I am Muhammad, and Ahmad (praised one), and Muqaffi (the Last Prophet); and I am also Hashir (the final Prophet in the presence of whom the dead will be resurrected); and the Prophet of repentance (the Prophet for the cause of whom 'the door' of repentance will always remain open), and the Prophet of mercy. (5)

The archangel Gabriel also benefited from the mercy of the Qur'an, which was revealed to God's Messenger. Once he asked Gabriel whether he had any share in the mercy contained in the Qur'an. Gabriel answered, 'Yes, o God's Messenger,' and explained,

I had not been certain about my end. However, when the verse (One) obeyed, and moreover, trustworthy and secured (al-Takwir, 81.21) was revealed, I felt secure about my end. (6)

When Ma'iz was punished for a serious crime, one of the Companions reproached him saying: 'He disclosed the sin he had committed secretly and died like a dog.' God's Messenger frowned at him and said:

You have backbitten your friend. His repentance and asking God's pardon for his sin would be enough for the forgiveness for all the sinners in the world. (7)

A member of the clan of Banu Muqarrin beat his maidservant. The poor woman referred the matter to God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, who sent for the master and said to him: You have beaten her without any justifiable right. So, set her free. (8) Setting a slave free was far better for his or her master than being punished in the Hereafter because of the slave.

God's Messenger was particularly compassionate towards children. When he saw a child crying, he sat beside him or her and shared his or her feelings. He felt the pain of a mother for her child more than the mother herself. Once he said:

I stand in prayer and wish to prolong it. However, I hear the cry of a child and cut the prayer short for the anxiety which the mother is feeling. (9)

He took children in his arms and hugged them. He was once hugging his beloved grandsons, Hasan and Hussayn, when Aqra ibn Habis told him: 'I have got ten children. So far, I haven't kissed any of them.'

God's Messenger responded:

The one with no pity for others is not pitied. (10)

According to another version, he said:

What can I do for you if God has removed from you the feeling of compassion? (11)

Once, he said:

Take pity on those on earth so that those in the heavens should have pity on you. (12)

Sa'd ibn 'Ubada once became ill. God's Messenger visited him in his house and, on seeing his faithful Companion in a pitiful state, he was moved to tears. Then, he said:

God does not punish because of tears, nor because of grief, but he punishes because of this, and he pointed to his tongue. (13)

When 'Uthman ibn Mad'un died, he wept profusely. During the funeral, a woman remarked: ' 'Uthman flew, like a bird, to Paradise.' Even in that mournful state, the Prophet did not lose his balance and corrected the woman:

How do you know that he went to Paradise while even I do not know, and I am a Prophet? (14)

God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, always protected and supported, both prior to and during his Prophethood, widows, orphans, the poor and disabled. When he returned home in excitement from Mount Hira after the first revelation, his wife, Khadija, told him:

I hope you will be the Prophet of this community, you always tell the truth, fulfil the trust, support your relatives, help the poor and weak, and feed guests. (15)

His compassion encompassed not only human beings, but also animals. We hear from him that a prostitute was guided to truth by God and ultimately went to Paradise because she gave water to a poor dog dying of thirst, whilst another woman was condemned to the torments of Hell because she left a cat to die of hunger. (16)

Once on return from a military campaign, a few Companions took away the chicks of a bird from their nest to stroke them. The mother bird came back and, when it could not find its chicks in the nest, it began to fly around screeching. When informed of the matter, God's Messenger became angry and ordered the chicks to be put back in the nest. (17)

Once he told his Companions that one of the previous Prophets was reproached by God because he set on fire a nest of ants. (18)

He was in Mina when some of his Companions once attacked a snake to kill it. However, the snake managed to escape. Watching this from afar, God's Messenger remarked: It was saved from your evil, as you were from its. (19)

As reported by Ibn 'Abbas, when God's Messenger once saw a man sharpening his knife directly before the sheep he would slaughter, he said to him: Do you desire to kill it many times? (20) 'Abdullah ibn Ja'far narrates:

God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, once went to a garden in Madina with a few of his Companions. There was a very scrawny camel in a corner. On seeing God's Messenger, it began to shed tears. The Messenger went to the camel and, after staying beside it for some time, severely warned the owner to feed the camel properly. (21)

The love and compassion of God's Messenger for all kinds of creatures was not of the kind claimed by today's 'humanists'. He was sincere and balanced in his love and compassion. He was more compassionate than any other person. He was a Prophet raised by God, the Creator and Sustainer of all beings, for the guidance and happiness of conscious beings - mankind and jinn - and the harmony of existence. So, he lived not for himself but for others; he is a mercy for all the worlds.

As a reflection of his mercy and compassion, God's Messenger was extremely mild and gentle, he was not harsh and stern. Due to his mildness, God's Messenger gained many converts to Islam and surpassed numerous obstacles on his way to ultimate victory.

After the victory of Badr, the Battle of Uhud was a severe trial for the Muslim community in Madina. Although God's Messenger was of the opinion that they should face the enemy on the outskirts of Madina, the majority of the Muslim army urged him to go out into the open for a pitched battle. When the two armies met each other at the foot of Mount Uhud, God's Messenger positioned fifty archers in the pass of 'Aynayn and ordered them not to leave their place without permission, even if they saw that the Muslims had won the victory decisively.

The Muslim army, one third of the enemy in number and equipment, had almost defeated the Makkan polytheists at the beginning of the battle. Seeing the enemy fleeing the battlefield, the archers forgot the Prophet's command and left their positions in pursuit of them. However, Khalid ibn Walid, the cavalry commander of the Makkan army, saw this and, riding round the mountain, attacked the Muslim army from behind. The fleeing enemy soldiers turned back, and as a result, the Muslims, caught in the cross-fire, experienced a reverse. More than seventy Muslims were martyred and God's Messenger was wounded. He might have reproached those who urged him to come into the open for a pitched battle and the archers who left their place contrary to his orders. But he did the reverse and showed leniency to them. The Qur'an says:

It was by the mercy of God that you were gentle to them; if you had been harsh and hard of heart, they would have dispersed from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult with them in the affair. And when you are resolved, then put your trust in God; surely God loves those who put their trust (in Him). (Al 'Imran, 3.159)

This verse shows, besides the need for leaders to be mild and lenient to those who make well-intentioned mistakes, the importance which Islam attaches to consultation in public administration.

The mildness and forgiveness of God's Messenger was a reflection of God's Names, the All-Mild, the All-Clement and the All-Forgiving. God does not stop providing for people despite their rebellion or unbelief. While the vast majority of people disobey Him either in unbelief and explicit or implicit association of partners with Him or transgression of His Commandments, the sun continues to send them its heat and light, clouds come to their aid with their tears - rain - and the earth never stops feeding them with its various fruits and plants. This is because of the Clemency and Forgiveness of God Almighty, which God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, reflected through his compassion, mildness and forgiveness.

Like the Prophet Abraham, whom he used to say that he resembled, God's Messenger was mild, imploring, clement and penitent (Hud, 11.75), and also gentle to believers and full of pity and compassionate for them (al-Tawbah, 9.127). Abraham, upon him be peace, was never angry with people, however much they tormented him. He wished for good even for his enemies. He implored God and shed tears in His Presence. Since he was a man of peace and salvation, God made the fire into which he was thrown cool and safe for him (al-Anbiya', 21.69). Like him, God's Messenger, upon him be peace, was never angry with anybody because of what was done to him. When his wife 'A'isha, may God be pleased with her, was made the object of a slander, he did not think to punish the slanderers even after 'A'isha was cleared by the Qur'an. Bedouins often came to his presence and behaved impolitely, but he did not even frown at them. Although extremely sensitive, he always showed forbearance towards everybody, whether friend or foe. His sensitivity was such that if, for example, a needle pierced his finger, it would give him more pain than others feel when speared. Despite this, he tolerated all the impudence of people.

As recounted earlier, he shared out the spoils of war after the Battle of Hunayn, when a man named Dhu l-Huwaysira objected, saying: 'Be just, o Muhammad!' This was an unforgivable offence against the sacred character of a Prophet whose role was to establish justice in the world. Unable to endure such offences against God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, 'Umar reacted: 'Let me kill this hypocrite, o God's Messenger!' But the Messenger did nothing other than say:

Who else will show justice if I am not just? If I do not show justice, then I have been lost and brought to naught. (22)

According to another version, he said:

If I am not just, then, by following me, you - the people - have been lost and brought to naught. (23)

In addition, he implied that that man would later take part in a seditious movement, which came true during the Caliphate of 'Ali. Dhu l-Huwaysira was found dead among the Kharijites killed in the Battle of Nahrawan.

As related by Anas ibn Malik, who served the Messenger for ten years, during which he was never reproached by him, a Jewish woman offered a roasted sheep to God's Messenger after the conquest of Khaybar. Just before he took the first morsel to his mouth, God's Messenger stopped and told the others at the meal not to eat of it, saying: This sheep tells me that it is poisonous. Nevertheless, a Companion, named Bishr, died immediately after he took the first morsel. The Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, sent for the woman and questioned her on why she tried to poison him. The woman replied:

If you are really a Prophet, the poison will not affect you. If you are not, I wanted to save people from your evil.

God's Messenger forgave the woman for her conspiracy to kill him. (24)

While the Prophet was once returning to his house after talking to his Companions in the mosque, a Bedouin pulled him by the collar and said rudely: 'O Muhammad! Give me my due! Load up these two camels of mine. For you will load them up with neither your own wealth nor the wealth of your father.' To this impertinence, God's Messenger gave the response, without showing any sign of offence: Give that man what he wants! (25)

Zayd ibn San'an narrates:

Once, God's Messenger borrowed some money from me. I was not yet a Muslim then. I went to him to collect my debt before its due time, and insulted him, saying; 'You the children of 'Abd al-Muttalib, are very reluctant to pay your debts!' 'Umar became very angry with this insult of mine and shouted; 'O enemy of God! Were it not for the treaty between us and the Jewish community, I would cut off your head! Speak to God's Messenger politely!'

However, God's Messenger smiled at me and, turning to 'Umar, said;

'Umar, pay the man his debt! And add to it the amount of twenty gallons because you have frightened him!

'Umar relates the rest of the story:

'We went together. On the way, Zayd spoke to me unexpectedly;

O 'Umar! You got angry with me. But I have found in him all the features of the Last Prophet recorded in the Torah, the Old Testament. However, there is this verse in it: 'His mildness surpasses his anger. The severity of impudence to him increases him only in mildness and forbearance.' In order to test his forbearance, I uttered what I uttered. Now I am convinced that he is the Prophet whose coming the Torah predicted, so, I believe and bear witness that he is the Last Prophet. (26)

The mildness and forbearance of God's Messenger sufficed for the conversion of Zayd ibn San'an, who was one of the Jewish scholars of the time.

God's Messenger himself was extremely meticulous in practising the religion. Nobody could imitate him in performing supererogatory prayers. Despite being sinless, he spent more than half the night praying in tears, and sometimes fasted two or three days successively. Every moment, he took a further step towards the 'praised station' set for him by God. However, he was very tolerant towards others; in order that his Ummah should not be put under a heavy burden, he did not perform the supererogatory prayers in the mosque. When a complaint was circulated about an imam (prayer leader) because he prolonged the prayer, the Prophet climbed the pulpit and said:

O you people! You cause aversion in people from prayer. Whoever among you leads a prescribed prayer should not prolong it, for there are among you people who are sick or old or who are in urgent need. (27)

Once his congregation complained to the Prophet about Mu'adh ibn Jabal that he prolonged the night prayer. The Prophet's love for Mu'adh did not prevent him from reproaching him, saying, Are you a trouble-maker? Are you a troublemaker? Are you a trouble-maker? (28)

The mildness and forbearance of God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, captured the hearts and preserved the unity of the Muslims. As stated in the Qur'an, if he had been harsh and hard-hearted, people would have dispersed from about him. But those who saw him and listened to him attained the rank of sainthood. For example, Khalid ibn Walid was the general of the Quraysh who caused the Muslims to experience a reverse in the Battle of Uhud. However, when he was not included in the army that went out for a military campaign on the day following his conversion, he was upset and sobbed.

Like Khalid, Ikrima and 'Amr ibn al-'As were among those who did great harm to God's Messenger and the Muslims. When they believed, each served Islam sincerely as commanders or governors. Ibn Hisham, the brother of Abu Jahl, converted to Islam shortly before the death of God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings. He became so sincere a Muslim that just before his martyrdom at the Battle of Yarmuk two years after the death of God's Messenger, he did not drink the water that Hudayfa al-'Adawi offered him, asking him to take it to the one lying nearby groaning for water. He died, having preferred his Muslim brother over himself. (29)

Those people attained high ranks in the enlightening atmosphere of God's Messenger, upon him peace and blessings. They were included among the Companions, those regarded and respected as the most virtuous people after the Prophets by almost the whole body of the Muslim Ummah since the earliest days of Islam. In order to explain their greatness, Said Nursi, the great Muslim revivalist of the twentieth century, says:

I had been wondering why even the greatest of saints like Muhyi al-Din ibn al-'Arabi are unable to attain the rank of the Companions. One day God Almighty enabled me to perform in prayer a prostration, which I have succeeded in doing only once during my life. I concluded that it is impossible to attain the ranks of the Companions because all the prostrations of the Companions were like that in meaning and merit. (30)

It was God's Messenger who brought up the Companions. It is enough to establish the greatness of the Companions that they succeeded despite their small number in conveying Islam to the farthest areas of Asia and Africa within a few decades, and Islam was rooted in those areas so deeply that, despite the concerted efforts of the global enemy powers for centuries backed with all kinds of machinery and technological facilities, to remove it from the surface of the earth, it continues to gain new momentum every passing day and is the sole alternative for the future salvation of humankind. The Companions, may God be pleased with them all, developed from the wretched state of the pre-Islamic Age of Ignorance to being guides and teachers of a considerable part of mankind until the Last Day, and the vanguard of the most magnificent civilization of history.

God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, was a man of absolute balance. His universal compassion did not prevent him from executing Divine justice, and his mildness and forbearance did not go to extremes of overlooking injustices and breach of rules or self-humiliation. For example, in a military campaign, Usama ibn Zayd threw an enemy soldier to the ground. When he was about to kill him, the man confessed belief. However, judging that confession to be due to fear of death, Usama killed the man. When informed of the incident, God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, became so angry with Usama that he reprimanded him severely, saying: Did you cleave his heart open and see (whether his confession of belief was due to fear of death)? He repeated this so many times that Usama said later: 'I wished I had not yet become a Muslim on the day I was scolded so severely.' (31)

Likewise, one day, Abu Dharr got angry with Bilal and insulted him, saying: 'You, the son of a black woman!' Bilal came to God's Messenger and reported the incident in tears. The Messenger reproached Abu Dharr, saying: Do you still have a sign of Jahiliyya? Repentant of what he did, Abu Dharr lay on the ground and said: 'The head of Abu Dharr will not be raised (meaning he will not get up) unless Bilal put his foot on it to pass over it.' Bilal forgave him and they were reconciled. (32)

Such was the brotherhood and the humanity Islam created between once savage people.


1. Bukhari, Anbiya', 54; Muslim, Jihad, 104.
2. I. Hisham, Sirah, 4.55; I. Kathir, al-Bidayah, 4.344.
3. Muslim, Fara'iz, 14; Bukhari, Istiqraz, 11.
4. Muslim, Birr, 87.
5. I. Hanbal, 4.395; Muslim, Fada'il, 126.
6. Qadi 'Iyad, al-Shifa', 1.17.
7. Muslim, Hudud, 17-23; Bukhari, Hudud, 28.
8. Muslim, Ayman, 31, 33; I. Hanbal, 3.447.
9. Bukhari, Adhan, 65; Muslim, Salat, 192.
10. Bukhari, Adab, 18.
11. Bukhari, Adab, 18; Muslim, Fada'il, 64; I. Maja, Adab, 3.
12. Tirmidhi, Birr, 16.
13. Bukhari, Jana'iz, 45; Muslim, Jana'iz, 12.
14. Bukhari, Jana'iz, 3.
15. I. Sa'd, Tabaqat, 1.195;
16. Bukhari, Anbiya', 54, Musaqat, 9; Muslim, Salam, 153; I. Hanbal, 2.507.
17. Abu Dawud, Adab, 164, Jihad, 112; I. Hanbal, 1.404.
18. Bukhari, Jihad, 153; Muslim, Salam, 147.
19. Nasa'i, Hajj, 114; I, Hanbal, 1.385.
20. Hakim, Mustadrak, 4.231, 233.
21. Suyuti, al-Khasa'is al-Kubra', 2.95; Haythami, Majma', 9.9.
22. Muslim, Zakat, 142, 148; Bukhari, Adab, 95, Manaqib, 25.
23. Bukhari, Adab, 95; Muslim, Zakat, 142.
24. Bukhari, Hibah, 28; Abu Dawud, Diyat, 6.
25. Abu Dawud, Adab, 1; Nasa'i, Qasamah, 24.
26. Suyuti, al-Khasa'is, 1.26; I. Hajar, al-Isabah, 1.566.
27. Bukhari, 'Ilm, 28, Adhan, 61.
28. Muslim, Salat, 179; Nasa'i, Iftitah, 71; Bukhari, Adab, 74.
29. Hakim, Mustadrak, 3.242.
30. Said Nursi, Sozler, 459.
31. Muslim, Iman, 158; I. Maja, Fitan, 1.
32. Bukhari, Iman, 22.