Solution to the Problem of Racism
When God's Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, was raised as a Prophet, the same kind of racism, under the name of tribalism, was prevalent in Makka. The Quraysh considered themselves in particular, and Arabs in general, superior to all the other peoples of the world. God's Messenger came with the Divine Message and proclaimed that no Arab is superior over a non-Arab, and no white is superior over black, (1) and superiority is by righteousness and God-fearing alone (surah al-Hujurat, 49.13). He also declared that even if an Abyssinian black Muslim were to rule over Muslims, he should be obeyed. (2)
God's Messenger eradicated the problem of racial or colour discrimination so successfully that, for example, 'Umar once said of Bilal: 'Bilal is our master, and was emancipated by our master Abu Bakr.' (3) Zayd ibn Haritha was a black slave. God's Messenger emancipated him and, before the banning of adoption by the Qur'an, adopted him. He married him to Zaynab bint Jahsh, one of the noblest women of the Muslim community. After all these honours he conferred on him, he also appointed him as a commander over the Muslim army he sent against the Byzantine Empire and which included the leading figures of the Companions such as Abu Bakr, 'Umar and others. (4) The Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, appointed Zayd's son, Usama, to command the army he formed just before his passing away.
During his Caliphate, 'Umar paid a higher salary to Usama than to his own son, 'Abd Allah, who asked why. 'Umar answered: 'My son, I do so, because I know well that God's Messenger loved Usama's father more than yours and Usama himself more than you'. (5)
Zayd ibn Haritha commanded an army in which the noblest of the Quraysh, like Ja'far ibn Abu Talib, the cousin of God's Messenger, and Khalid ibn Walid, the invincible general of the age, were present. The army commanded by Usama, Zayd's son, included leading figures among the Companions such as Khalid, Abu 'Ubayda, Talha, Zubayr and others. This established in the hearts and minds that superiority is not by birth or colour or blood, but by God-fearing and righteousness.
2. Muslim, 'Imarah, 37.
3. I. Hajar, al-Isabah, 1.165.
4. Muslim, Fada'il al-Sahabah, 63.
5. I. Sa'd, Tabaqat, 4.70; I. Hajar, 1.564.
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