The reason to have network leadership is to negotiate, mediate and facilitate co-operation among individuals and the wider society, not to win membership loyalty or generate propaganda.
Leadership and structures within the Gülen Movement are primarily oriented toward carrying out action and service-projects, and so the SMOs have organizational or managerial (not hierarchical) order. There is extensive overlapping of roles and functions in the Gülen Movement because participants may belong to several networks or work on more than one project.
Participants’ norms include a definition of the relationship between the Gülen Movement and society, and in particular a definition of the relationship between the Gülen Movement and the participants in its service-networks. The organizational order means that network leaders have to work within these norms.