Did the Gülen Movement's cultural networks exist before the Movement's public appearance?
Yes. We need to distinguish between the discovery of the movement by the mass media and its organizational and cultural origins.
Prior to the 1980 military coup Gülen Movement participants had already responded to the crisis in education by setting up institutions such as student halls of residence, university entrance courses, teacher associations. They had also started to address the contraction in the field for the expression of moral concerns in the public arena by establishing publishing houses and a journal.
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