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What is the significance of the history or socio-political context of Turkey to the rise of movements in Turkey?

To understand contemporary social phenomena in Turkey, we need to understand the changing circumstances in which the attempt was made to establish and then hold on to a nationalist, laicist, and Westernized republic after the end of the Ottoman Empire.

For the emergence, dynamics and outcomes of any social movement (especially in the case of a multi-purpose civic action like Hizmet), the political system, its institutions and processes, and the larger social and cultural ethos are highly significant material factors.

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