No, it has never turned to direct action, nor threatened to turn to it. In all domains, the Gülen Movement has consistently rejected the use of civil disobedience, confrontational or direct action tactics. It has instead focused its energies on establishing new enterprises and co-operatives, agencies for personal development, in-service training, and job placement. It has proved able to unite and mobilize large numbers of people from many diverse backgrounds to work on significant social projects. This is evident in sectors such as education, journalism, television production, radio broadcasting, co-operatives, the accommodation industry (building houses, hostels and hotels), health therapy, aid and relief organizations, and banking/finance. Accordingly, one of the effects of the Gülen Movement has been modernization of society through the expansion of innovative occupational sectors, with notably high turnover of personnel in communications, education and welfare services.